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Showing posts from 2012

Mt. Everest is Virtually Amazing

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In the news: "A 3.8 Billion-Pixel Tour of Mount Everest" by Claire O'Neill NPR
SC5980 Mount Everest, seen from the International Space Station (ISS). The view is tilted about 45 degrees clockwise and looks to the south-west. Everest (8850 metres, centre, largest shadow) is brightly lit in the early morning sun. The low-angled light makes the mountains stand out from their shadows. This is Everest's eastern side, the Kangshang Face. The North Ridge, a popular climbing route, runs down to lower centre. In front of Everest, a large glacier (grey) winds downhill. Everest is on the border between China (lower left) and Nepal (upper right). The ISS orbits around 380 kilometres above the Earth. Photographed on 20 March 2002. Credit: NASA / Science Source
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121212 December 12, 2012...

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In the news: "12/12/12: A User's Guide" by Jen Doll the Atlantic wire December 12, 2012
BU1909 Eggs in cartons arranged clockwise to illustrate counting from one to twelve. Credit:Photo Researchers, Inc.
Colorization by: Eric Cohen

Neural Urine

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In the news: "From Urine to Neurons" by Dan Cossins The Scientist December 11, 2012
BU7502 Urine sample. Credit: GIPhotoStock / Science Source

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The Rising Cost of Sick Days?

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In the news: "Insurance Picks at Work Will Cost You More" by Michelle Andrews September 25, 2012 NPR Health News FC1539 Two stethoscopes sitting on a white surface. The stethoscopes are forming the dollar symbol. Credit: 3D4Medical / Science Source

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Climate and Mayan Civilization

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In the news: "An ancient civilization's wet ascent, dry demise" By Bruce Bower Science News November 8, 2012 5X9060 A dawn silhouette showing Mayan Indians at work on excavating a temple, Orange Walk, Belize. Credit: Lowell Georgia / Science Source

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Precursors to Alzheimer's Detected at Younger Age

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In the news: "Alzheimer's Precursors Evident in Brain at Early Age" by Pam Belluck New York Times November 12, 2012 BS6291 Alzheimer's disease. Sliced sections from two brains. On the left is a normal brain of a 70-year-old. On the right is the brain of a 70-year-old with Alzheimer's disease. The right brain is atrophied with a loss of cortex and white matter. Alzheimer's disease is a dementing disorder marked by certain brain changes regardless of the age of onset. It is not a normal part of aging. It is a dementing disorder that leads to the loss of mental and physical functions. The chance of developing Alzheimer's increases with age. Credit: Jessica Wilson / Science Source

The Perfect Franken-Storm

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In the news: "How the Frankenstorm came to life" by Alexandra Witze Science News October 31, 2012  SL5010 Earth's wind patterns, schematic view. Atmospheric circulation in each hemisphere consists of three cells. The Hadley Cell (labeled) dominates the tropical atmosphere and is intimately related to the trade winds, tropical rain belts, subtropical deserts and the jet streams. The Polar Cell (labeled) produces the polar easterlies. The outflow from the Polar Cell creates waves in the atmosphere known as Rossby waves which play an important role in determining the path of the jet stream. The polar cell also balances the Hadley Cell in the Earth's energy equation. The Ferrel Cell (labeled) is dependent upon the Hadley Cell and the Polar Cell and just as the trade winds can be found below the Hadley Cell, the westerlies can be found beneath the Ferrel Cell. Credit: European Space Agency / AOES Medialab / Science Source

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Laugh Your A** Off!

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In the news: "Laughter as a Form of Exercise" By Gretchen Reynolds New York Times October 24, 2012
RA1588 Teenage friends laughing. Credit: Ian Hooton / Science Source®


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Orionids Meteor Shower

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In the news: "Sky watchers have good weekend to catch falling stars" by Elizabeth Weise USA TODAY October 18, 2012 3B4455 An Orionid fireball streaks towards the Big Dipper, seen in a dark sky over the desert in central Arizona. Credit: Frank Zullo / Science Source

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Water Bear (Tardigrada) Wins!

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In the news: (The 2012 Labby Awards: Water Bear Wins!) Pixel Perfect by The Scientist Staff TheScientist October 1, 2012 BS8236 Water bear (Macrobiotus sapiens) in moss. Color enhanced scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a water bear in its active state. Water bears (or tardigrades) are tiny invertebrates that live in aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats such as lichen and damp moss. They require water to obtain oxygen by gas exchange. In dry conditions, they can enter a cryptobiotic state of desiccation, known as a tun, to survive. In this state, water bears can survive for up to a decade. This species was found in moss samples from Croatia. It feeds on plant and animal cells. Water bears are found throughout the world, including regions of extreme temperature, such as hot springs, and extreme pressure, such as deep underwater. They can also survive high levels of radiation and the vacuum of space. Magnification: x250 when printed 10cm wide. Credit: Eye of Science / S…

Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka

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In the news: "Nobel Prize in medicine awarded to Sir John Gurdon, Shinya Yamanaka" by CNN Wire Staff CNN October 8, 2012 SA3108 John Gurdon. Portrait of British geneticist John Gurdon (born 1933), Professor of Cell Biology at Cambridge University and Chairman of the Wellcome CRC Institute for Cancer and Developmental Biology in Cambridge, UK. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, Gurdon was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1971. His research concerns the way genes control the development of specialized cells from rapidly dividing cells in vertebrate embryos. Because cancers contain rapidly dividing cells that have lost their specialized functions, this work is of major importance in the fight against cancer. Credit: Jerry Mason / Science Source

Venomous Pain-Killer

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In the news: "Black mamba venom could contain a fantastic painkiller" by John Timmer Ars Technica  October 4, 2012 2L5477 Black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), South Africa. Credit: Karl H. Switak / Photo Researchers, Inc.

(W)omen in Science = (P)ower x (T)ime

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In the news: "Bias Persists for Women of Science, a Study Finds" Multiple Authors The New York Times September 24, 2012
BF6255 In vitro fertilization: a lab technician looks through a microscope to select an ovum. Credit: LADA / Hop Américain / Science Source

Breast Cancer - Genomic Insight

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In the news: "Study Divides Breast Cancer Into Four Distinct Types" by Gina Kolata New York Times Health September 23, 2012 BM3235 Breast cancer screening: a radiologist records comments of mammograms on a voice recorder. Credit: BURGER / PHANIE / Science Source

Take it Without A Grain of Salt

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In the news: "U.S. Kids Eat Nearly As Much Salt As Adults, Putting Health At Risk" by Allison Aubrey NPR  September 17, 2012 BB7116 A young African-American female child has her blood pressure checked. Credit: John M. Daugherty / Science Source

Pain Killer Headaches

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In the news: "Painkillers 'are the cause' of millions of headaches" by James Gallagher BBC News Health September 18, 2012 BC9168 Woman taking pain medicine for her headache. Credit: Olivier Voisin / Science Source

The Fluoridation of Portland, Oregon

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In the news: "Portland Approves Fluoridation by '14" by Kirk Johnson New York Times September 12, 2012
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SEM: Bacteria in a hole resulting from tooth decay. These bacteria belong to the normal oral flora. Under certain conditions, like the presence of sugar, some bacteria produce lactic acid, which attacks the enamel and causes caries. Magnification = 4,500x Credit: Eye of Science / Photo Researchers, Inc.

The Goose that Laid the Green Fluorescent Protein

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In the news: "The Golden Goose Is Awarded" by Edyta Zielinska The Scientist September 12, 2012
SJ9603 Genetically modified mosquito larvae. Larvae of the mosquito (Anopheles stephensi), glowing green under ultraviolet light. The gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), has been introduced into the mosquito genome. EGFP is a version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria that had been mutated in the lab to give a brighter glow. The green glow shows that the EGFP gene has been successfully introduced. This raises hopes that a gene could be introduced that would make the mosquitoes unable to carry the Plasmodium sp. protozoa that cause malaria, which would save millions of lives. Credit: Sinclair Stammers / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Signs of Life - 3.5 billion years ago

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In the news: "3.5 billion year old organic deposits show signs of life" by John Timmer arstechnica  September 4, 2012 3W7950 Stromatolites in Shark Bay, Australia, in sea water. Stromatolites, concretions of bacteria and algae, are an ancient form of life. Credit: B. G. Thomson / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Farm Use of Antibiotics Resistent to Regulation

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In the news: "Farm Use of Antibiotics Defies Scrutiny" by Sabrina Tavernise New York Times Health September 3, 2012 SA0225 Veterinary surgeon injecting penicillin (antibiotic) into the teat, or nipple, of a cow's udder (mammary gland), which has become infected by the bacteria, Staphyloccous sp & Streptococcus sp. The infection appears on the surface of the skin as black marks, & was further irritated (redness) by the automatic suction cups used during milking. Credit: David Leah / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Dieting Monkeys Don't Live Longer?

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In the news: "Dieting Monkeys Don't Live Longer" by Sabrina Richards The Scientist August 29, 2012 3N1092 Mother barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus) and her young puzzle over a wrapper left by a tourist. Credit: Jeanne White / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Hanuted by Hantavirus in Yosemite

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In the news: "August 2012 - Yosemite National Park Outbreak Notice" from: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention August 29, 2012 BS4843 Color enhanced transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a Hantavirus. Hantavirus is a respiratory disease carried in wild rodents such as deer mice. Mice do not appear ill while carrying the hantavirus. People become infected after breathing airborne particles of urine, droppings or saliva from infected rodents. Hantavirus causes flu-like symptoms that eventually cause the lungs to fill with fluid, making breathing difficult. Medical attention must be sought as soon as infection is detected. Most cases of Hantavirus reported in the U.S. have been in the rural Western states. Credit:Science Source
Colorization by: Mary Martin

Neil Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012)

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In the news: "Made 'Giant Leap' as First Man to Step on Moon" By John Noble Wilford New York Times August 25, 2012 BH5869 The Apollo 11 crew leaves Kennedy Space Center's Manned Spacecraft Operations Building during the pre-launch countdown. Mission commander Neil Armstrong, command module pilot Michael Collins, and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin prepare to ride the special transport van to Launch Complex 39A where their spacecraft awaited them. Credit: NASA / Science Source

West Nile Outbreak Looms Large

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In the news: "Worst Year for West Nile Is Expected, Officials Say" by Donald G. McNeil, Jr.  New York Times August 22, 2012 AK436A Color enhanced Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of West Nile Virus (togaviridae) isolated from brain tissue. Magnification = 120,000x. Credit: Chris Bjornberg / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Melanoma and Nutrition - Linked?

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In the news: "Evidence-Based Nutritional Chemoprevention of Melanoma" by Lowell Goldsmith SciLogs August 22, 2012 3W0059 Computer generated model of the chemical structure of Vitamin A. Vitamin A maintains skin and mucus membranes, and is needed for night vision. Its absence from diet leads to weight loss, night blindness, and to an increased susceptibility to infections. Vitamin A is structurally related to carotene. Carotene is converted into vitamin A in the liver, two molecules of vitamin A are formed from on molecule of beta carotene, hence good sources of carotene, such as green vegetables are good potential sources of vitamin A. Vitamin A is manufactured from fish-liver oil and by synthesis from beta-ionone. Good sources of Vitamin A are butter, milk, cheese, yogurt, sweet potatoes, carrots, red peppers, chilies, leafy green vegetables, tomatoes, apricots, and melons. Credit: Kenneth Eward / BioGrafx / Photo Researchers, Inc.

A Pox Upon your Chickenpox

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In the news: "Chickenpox Down 80 Percent since 2000" by Kate Yandell New York Times August 20, 2012 BV4951 Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) entering the bloodstream. VZV s a herpes virus that can cause chickenpox in children and shingles (Herpes zoster) in adults. The virus is transmitted by airborne viral particles shed from the skin of an infected person. The new host breathes in the virus, which enters the mucous membrane in a person's respiratory tract and begins to spread without its envelope from cell to cell. The virus invades T-cells of the blood and those T-cells carry the virus to the skin. There, the virus can recreate its envelope because the top layer of the skin lacks the endosomal pathway that removes glycoproteins from the envelope. Credit: Carol and Mike Werner / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Ironing out Iron Consumption

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In the news: "Iron Deficiency and Iron Overload" Jane E. Brody New York Times August 13, 2012 SB7859 Light micrograph of a section of human liver affected by hemosiderosis, a condition characterized by the excessive deposition of iron in the liver and caused by a high dietary intake or following repeated blood transfusions. Iron is stored as hemosiderin in the Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes (liver cells) and causes liver cell death and cirrhosis. Here, some cells contain large quantities of iron which has been stained black. Acomparable condition, hemochromatosis, results from an inherited defect in iron metabolism and affects other organs in addition to the liver. Magnification: x100 at 35mm size. Credit: Astrid & Hanns-Frieder Michler / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Triclosan, the Dirt on Antibacterial Soap

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In the news: "Triclosan, A Chemical Used in Antibacterial Soaps is Found to Impair Muscle Function" by Joseph Stromberg Smithsonian.com August 13, 2012 BQ7066 Triclosan is a potent wide-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent. It is used in soaps (0.10-1.00%), deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouth washes, and cleaning supplies. It may also be used in kitchen utensils, toys, bedding, socks, and trash bags. Triclosan reduces bacterial contamination on the hands and on treated products. Showering with 2% triclosan is a recommended procedure to decolonize patients whose skin carries methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). At low concentrations, triclosan acts as a bacteriostatic; it targets bacteria mainly by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. Key: Carbon: blue, Hydrogen: cream, Chlorine: yellow, Oxygen: green. Credit: Scimat / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Replaceable You

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In the news: "Replacement Parts" By Ed Yong TheScientist August 1, 2012 DA0975  Representation of different transplants: cornea, heart, cardiac valves, liver, pancreas, hand, intestines, bones, blood vessels, cells, kidney, lungs, skin. Credit: Dominique Duval / Photo Researchers, Inc.

TheScientist 2012 Labby Awards

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2012 LABBY AWARDSTheScientistVote for your favorite image here! (If you happen to prefer one of these images, no one at Photo Researchers would complain!)

MMR Protected From 'Babyjabs'

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In the news: "Website warned over MMR claims" BBC News Health August 7, 2012 SF2680 MMR vaccine being drawn into a syringe. This combined vaccine protects infants from three viral diseases: measles, mumps and rubella. The first injection is given in a child's second year, followed by a booster three years later. The vaccine consists of weakened samples of the three viruses. When injected, the vaccine stimulates the body's immune system to produce antibodies, but without causing infection. The immune system can then respond quickly against future infections by the viruses. In recent years, there has been public concern about a possible link between the MMR vaccine and autism. However, epidemiological studies suggest that there is no link. Credit: Tek Image / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Cardiac Catheterizations, For Profit

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In the news: "Hospital Chain Inquiry Cited Unnecessary Cardiac Work" by Reed Abelson and Julie Creswell New York Times August 6, 2012
BH6771 Inserting a catheter into an artery in the arm; from there it will be advanced into the right coronary artery. Credit: Michelle Del Guercio / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Mars Curiosity

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In the news: "NASA rover Curiosity makes historic Mars landing, beams back photos" By Steve Gorman Reuters August 6, 2012 BT6756 The NASA Mars rover Curiosity, launched on November 26, 2011, landed on Mars on August 6, 2012. Curiosity's main goal is to assess whether Mars is, or ever was, an environment able to support life. Credit: NASA / Science Source

Ecstasy and Memory Loss

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In the news: "Ecstasy May Cause Memory Problems" by Laura Sanders ScienceNews July 26, 2012 S6407 Ecstasy pills with designs on them which assure users of their quality. Ecstasy (3, 4- methylene dioxymethamphetamine) is an illegal drug which gives users a sense of well-being, affection for the people around them, increased energy and sometimes hallucinations. Possible short-term problems associated with ecstasy include feeling ill, a sense of losing control and dehydration. Long-term problems include memory and weight loss. There have been deaths associated with the use of ecstasy. These are generally caused by an accumulation of water in the brain because the drug affects the body's internal signals rather than being due to the drug's direct toxicity. Credit: C. Molloy / Photo Researchers, Inc.

A Model Pathogen

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In the news: "Virtual germ created on computer for first time" by Paul Marks New Scientist July 23, 2012 SK6302 Mycoplasma genitalium, colored transmission electron micrograph (TEM). M. genitalium has the smallest genome (total genetic material) of all living organisms. Its genome was mapped in 1993, making it the second complete bacterial genome to be sequenced. In January 2008, a team at the J. Craig Venter Institute, USA, used this map to make a synthetic bacterial chromosome, called M. laboratorium, from scratch. A chromosome is made up of proteins and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA contains sections (genes) that encode the cell's structure and function. The new chromosome, containing only the genes needed for life, was then inserted into a M. genitalium bacterium with its genome removed. Having a different chromosome changes the bacterium's function, making it different from wild M. genitalium bacteria. Magnification: x43,000 when printed 10cm wide. Cred…

Sally K. Ride

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In the news: "NASA Offers Condolences on the Passing of Pioneering Astronaut Sally Ride" NASA
July 23, 2012 BG8055 Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist on STS-7, monitors control panels from the pilot's chair on the Flight Deck. Floating in front of her is a flight procedures notebook. Credit: NASA / Science Source / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Devastating Dought Declared Disaster

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In the news: "Widespread Drought Is Likely to Worsen"
by John Eligon  New York Times
July 19, 2012 7C8232 Drought conditions affecting crops. An ear of corn with incomplete development due to lack of water. Photographed in Waterloo, Iowa during the 1988 drought. Credit: Robert J. Erwin / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Bacillus anthracis and Chlorine

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In the news: "Killer Silk" by Jef Akst The Scientist July 1, 2012 3L7375Anthrax bacteria in lung. Colored scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a cluster of anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis) in capillary of the lung. These rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria are pathogenic. Commonly an infection of livestock, B. anthracis is transmitted to humans by contact with contaminated animal hair, hides, or excrement. Two forms of the disease occur: pnumonia in the lungs (woolsorter's disease), and cutaneous anthrax, which causes a large boil at the site of the bacteria's entry. Antibiotic treatment, if prompt, may be effective for the skin infection. Pulmonary anthrax is fatal in most cases. Magnification: x540 at 6 x 7 size. x1750 at 7.5 x 9.5 Credit: CAMR / A. Barry Dowsett / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy (IVIG)

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In the news: "Immune Drug Shows Promise for Alzeimer's" by Shirley S. Wang Wall Street Journal - Health July 18, 2012 7L4542 Diseased brain tissue from an Alzheimer's patient showing amyloid deterioration in the gray matter of the brain; 250x magnification. Axon and Congo Red Stain.  Credit: Martin M. Rotker / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Mounting Evidence of Dinosaur Sex

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In the news: "Dinosaur Sex Experts Concur That Animals Mated Front to Back" Huffington Post- Science July 11, 2012 SP4855 Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaurs nuzzling, computer artwork. T. rex was one of the largest carnivorous dinosaurs, measuring 5 meters tall and weighing 7 tonnes. It lived in North America and Asia during the late Cretaceous period, between 85 and 65 million years ago. A predator and scavenger, T. rex had the strongest bite of any dinosaur, with teeth that could penetrate bone. Credit: José Antonio Peñas / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Dental Work Makes you Mental?

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In the news: "White dental fillings may impair kids' behavior" by Janet Raloff ScienceNews July 16, 2012
6Z5117 Dental bonding, a procedure in which a composite resin is bonded to the teeth for either structural or cosmetic purposes. Credit: Sam Pierson / Photo Researchers, Inc.

An Apple A Day

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In the news: "That Fresh Look, Genetically Buffed" by Andrew Pollack The New York Times July 12, 2012 4K5040 Light Micrograph (LM) of a stained longitudinal section of apple (Malus domestica) fruit. Magnification X1:8 at 35mm. Credit: M. I. Walker / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Victory Dance!

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In the news: "Why Humans Raise Their Arms in Victory" DNA (Daily News and Analysis) July 11, 2012 SK9706 Athletes finishing a race. Enhanced X-ray of a group of athletes crossing a finishing line. Credit: Gustoimages / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Enterovirus Type 71 (EV-71)

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In the news: "Can a deadly form of hand, foot and mouth disease hit the US?" By Deborah Kotz July 10, 2012 Boston Globe SB7332 Enteroviruses. Colored transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a cluster of unidentified enteroviruses. The protein coat of each virus is light blue; RNA genetic material is red. Around the viruses are specific antibody molecules. Enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviruses, a group of small (25-30 nanometers in diameter) RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. They primarily inhabit the intestine, though they are also commonly found in the upper respiratory tract of humans. Enteroviruses can be divided into three groups: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses and echoviruses. Credit: Dr. Linda M. Stannard, University of Cape Town / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Metformin has Many Functions

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In the news: "Diabetes Drug Grows Neurons" by Hayley Dunning The Scientist July 5, 2012 BR7566 Molecular model of Metformin, an oral antidiabetic drug and the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this image, carbon molecules are black, hydrogen molecules are white, and nitrogen molecules are blue. Credit: Carol and Mike Werner / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Higgs-like Particle Matters to the Masses

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Confirming an earlier tentative announcement last December, scientists at CERN have announced the discovery of a new subatomic particle of 125-126 GeV, which is probably the much-sought-after Higgs boson, sometimes called the "God Particle," a massive elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics and named for Professor Peter Higgs, whose "Higgs mechanism" explains the origin of mass in elementary particles.
Explore a gallery of our Higgs-related images here. SN9425
Higgs mechanism. Number 3 in a series of 5 cartoons explaining how the Higgs field confers mass on particles. Physicists in a room represent space filled with only the Higgs field. When a famous scientist enters the room he attracts a cluster of admirers (yellow). The cluster around him increases his resistance to movement, in other words he has acquired mass. This is the same as a particle moving through the Higgs field and crea…

Higgs boson Particle Proof?

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In the news: "CMS spokesman: 'We've observed a new particle'" By Science News Staff ScienceNews July 3, 2012 SA3297 Simulated detection of Higgs boson. Computer simulation of an event in which the decay of a Higgs boson particle produces four muons. Two of these muons are seen here (green tracks). The muons, along with countless other particles (red and blue tracks), are produced in a head-on collision between two protons. The Higgs boson is a localized clustering in the Higgs Field. This field permeates space, and local distortions of the Higgs Field are thought to be the way that particles gain mass. This image shows how the Higgs boson might be seen in the CMS detector on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory. Credit: David Parker / Photo Researchers, Inc.

The Oceans of Titan

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In the news: "Titan's Underground Ocean" by Dr. Tony Phillips NASA Science June 28, 2012 BF8117 Sun beams filter down on Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Credit: Steve A. Munsinger / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Swine Flu's Growing Death Toll

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In the news: "Swing flu outbreak 15 times deadlier than thought, study finds" By MyHealthNewsDaily msnbc.com June 25, 2012 BU6813 Flu virus A (H1N1). Influenzavirus A (H1N1) is of Orthomyxoviridae group. This virus is responsible for an infectious and contagious respiratory disease, with symptoms of fever, aches, strain, respiratory difficulties and cough. It can evolve to become pandemic. Viral diameter approximately 100nm. Viral magnification 1,000,000x at 10cm and image colorization with HDRI treatments on a Transmission Electron Micrograph view (TEM). Credit: James Cavallini / Photo Researchers, Inc.