How did we get from discovering fire to using nanotubes in labs?
The concept of atoms was first conceived in ancient Greece by a group of philosophers known as the atomists. In 330 BC, Aristotle opposed this theory. He was a proponent of the elemental theory, positing that all matter was composed of the elements earth, fire, water, and air. He even added an element, aether (or ether).
The elemental theory continued into the middle ages through the study of alchemy. Alchemists added sulfur, salt, and mercury to the list. RF and RM Stock Images and Video of the History of Modern Chemistry
Finally, in 1661, Robert Boyle published the book "The Sceptical Chymist", presenting his hypothesis of particles in motion and asserting that only experiments using the "scientific method" could be considered true.
Another milestone in chemistry was the discovery of electrochemistry. Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in 1800, using piles of copper and zinc discs. They w…
There’s no doubt about it - our immune systems are powerful. We’ve all had moments where we don’t pay much attention to our immune systems because of lack of sleep or high stress, and had to endure bouts of sneezing, coughing, or fever in the coming days. Some of us have taken extra steps to make sure our immune systems are as strong as possible, and noticed how invincible it feels to go months without getting sick. Everyday function, brain power, and physical ability depends strongly on our body’s ability to fight off viruses and disease.
The power that our immune system provides in determining our health can even be utilized to fight cancer. Immunotherapy is a method of cancer treatment that helps to strengthen the immune system to be able to fight cancer cells better, as well as direct the immune system towards specific cancer cells.RF and RM Images and Video of Immunotherapy
A large number of cells in our body aid in the immune system. White blood cells (lymphocytes) recognize fo…
Species around the world are facing extinction from threats ranging from ivory poaching to global climate change. Organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund have responded to the crisis with far-reaching conservation efforts.
The black rhinoceros has long been a victim of poaching for the international trade in rhino horn. British colonists began hunting rhinos in Africa during the colonial era and poaching has continued to this day. Conservationists work to protect rhino populations by building conservations and training local rangers to fend off poachers, but victories are hard fought. The black rhino’s population has sunk to 2,300 in recent years.
The polar bear has risen to public awareness due to the impact of climate change on the Arctic. Since 1979 the volume of sea ice shrunk by 80%, dramatically reducing the polar bear’s natural habitat. Experts say that the population of polar bears decreased to 20,000 to 25,000 in the last decade, classifying them a ‘vulnerable’ species…