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Endangered Animals

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Species around the world are facing extinction from threats ranging from ivory poaching to global climate change. Organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund have responded to the crisis with far-reaching conservation efforts. The black rhinoceros has long been a victim of poaching for the international trade in rhino horn. British colonists began hunting rhinos in Africa during the colonial era and poaching has continued to this day. Conservationists work to protect rhino populations by building conservations and training local rangers to fend off poachers, but victories are hard fought. The black rhino’s population has sunk to 2,300 in recent years. The polar bear has risen to public awareness due to the impact of climate change on the Arctic. Since 1979 the volume of sea ice shrunk by 80%, dramatically reducing the polar bear’s natural habitat. Experts say that the population of polar bears decreased to 20,000 to 25,000 in the last decade, classifying them a ‘vulnerable’ species…

Immunotherapy: Your Immune System is Cancer's Biggest Enemy

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There’s no doubt about it - our immune systems are powerful. We’ve all had moments where we don’t pay much attention to our immune systems because of lack of sleep or high stress, and had to endure bouts of sneezing, coughing, or fever in the coming days. Some of us have taken extra steps to make sure our immune systems are as strong as possible, and noticed how invincible it feels to go months without getting sick. Everyday function, brain power, and physical ability depends strongly on our body’s ability to fight off viruses and disease. The power that our immune system provides in determining our health can even be utilized to fight cancer. Immunotherapy is a method of cancer treatment that helps to strengthen the immune system to be able to fight cancer cells better, as well as direct the immune system towards specific cancer cells.RF and RM Images and Video of Immunotherapy A large number of cells in our body aid in the immune system. White blood cells (lymphocytes) recognize fo…

Origins of Modern Chemistry

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How did we get from discovering fire to using nanotubes in labs? The concept of atoms was first conceived in ancient Greece by a group of philosophers known as the atomists. In 330 BC, Aristotle opposed this theory. He was a proponent of the elemental theory, positing that all matter was composed of the elements earth, fire, water, and air. He even added an element, aether (or ether). The elemental theory continued into the middle ages through the study of alchemy. Alchemists added sulfur, salt, and mercury to the list. RF and RM Stock Images and Video
of the History of Modern Chemistry
Finally, in 1661, Robert Boyle published the book "The Sceptical Chymist", presenting his hypothesis of particles in motion and asserting that only experiments using the "scientific method" could be considered true.
Another milestone in chemistry was the discovery of electrochemistry. Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in 1800, using piles of copper and zinc discs. They w…

History of Flight: From Kites to Space Travel

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There are over 100,000 airplane flights a day, with almost 10,000 planes in the air simultaneously. It's taken humanity thousands of years to get to this point, starting with the invention of the humble kite in China in 475 BC. The popularity of kite flying in China began people thinking about making human flight a reality. Soaring through the air untethered to the ground. Before, it has been the realm of mythology, such as Icarus, Alexander the Great, and Pegasus. Images & Video of the History of Flight On the way, there were many failed attempts over the centuries. At first, many inventors tried to replicate the wings of birds, even using feathers or lightweight wood. But, a human's arm muscles are not like a bird's. Leonardo DaVinci made over 100 drawings of his theories of flight and flying machines. None of which were built in his lifetime. It took until 1783, Paris, France before man reached this goal. Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d…

Vaccines: How They Protect Us

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Although vaccination has been a hot topic in recent news, the study of vaccination goes back to around 1,000 years ago. Early records of smallpox immunization, called variolation, can be dated back to 1000 CE in China.

Variolation was a practice that involved taking material (usually part of a scab) from a patient that was infected with smallpox and exposing a healthy individual to this material. The doctor would often insert the infected material underneath the healthy person’s skin to achieve proper exposure. The hope was that the healthy person would get sick, their immune system would successfully fight the virus, and they would then be immune to the disease once they recovered. Not surprisingly, some patients died from an intentional infection of smallpox, but the ones that did survive were indeed immune to future infections. RF and RM Images of Viruses and Vaccines Luckily, we have since discovered a less risky method of immunization, but the general concept is similar. The body…

Concussions and the Future of Contact Sports

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Injuries are the last thing one thinks of on game day but they’re an inevitable part of professional sports and they’re shaping what athletics will look like in the future. Concussions are one of the biggest threats to professional athletes today. Repeated concussions can lead to memory loss, personality changes, depression, and anxiety. After suffering one concussion a person is more likely to suffer a second one, and the effects become more severe. Multiple concussions can increase the risk of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and CTE. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a brain disorder that occurs after repeated head injuries. Symptoms include memory loss, impaired judgment, aggression, depression, and suicidal thoughts. In one famous case, Aaron Hernandez, a young professional football player, committed suicide in prison without knowing he had the disease.Sports Injury and Video Gallery A number of sports have changed their rules to prevent head injuries. The NFL, for instance, h…

How 3D Medical Animation is Changing the Way We Learn

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Many of us remember taking biology and anatomy courses in high school or college. We would peer into our textbooks and try to soak in the labels attached to an illustration of an animal cell. Some of us were lucky enough to crowd around a model of a skeleton at the front of the class and watch the instructor point out important anatomical landmarks. Those of us who were able to observe a physical model of a biological structure may have noticed that it was much easier to retain information if we could see a 360-degree view of the object. If we could hold it in our hands, turn it around to look at the front and back, and maybe take different pieces of the model apart, we were able to interact with the structure enough to feel more familiar with how it looked and what the nomenclature was. RF and RM Videos of 3D Medical Animations Unfortunately, it is nearly impossible for a classroom to have physical models of every scientific topic that needs to be learned. However, the birth of 3D a…

NASA and the Space Age

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In 1957, an amazing spectacle appeared in the North American night sky – Sputnik, the first satellite to enter Earth’s orbit. The USSR had successfully sent a rocket into outer space, thus beginning the space race, an event which would last a decade and challenge the best and brightest of two nations. In response to Sputnik, President Dwight D. Eisenhower created NASA, the first American administration for space exploration in 1958. With Project Mercury, NASA attempted to make the first manned mission into space but failed to beat the Russians, who sent Yuri Gagarin into orbit in 1961. A month later Alan Shepard became the first American in space and John Glenn followed soon after, orbiting the Earth three times in 1962.Gallery of NASA Stock Images and Videos In the Sixties, NASA entered a new era. With the cold war raging and the threat of nuclear armament on the horizon, President John F Kennedy vowed to redouble NASA’s efforts and put an American on the moon by the end of the deca…

Don't Sweat It: How Mosquitos Find Us

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Scientists recently came one step closer to figuring out how to stop mosquitoes from biting us. Mosquitos have plagued humans and other warm-blooded mammals for eons. Aside from ruining an otherwise beautiful summer evening with their itchy bites, they transmit some of the worst diseases known to man. Malaria, zika, yellow fever, dengue, West Nile Virus, encephalitis, and chikungunya are some of the deadliest.RF & RM Stock Images of Mosquitos Many of these have no cure and may cause congenital disabilities or death. In the United States West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, La Crosse encephalitis, dengue, and yellow fever are all transmitted by mosquitoes. The good news is that scientists continue to discover precisely how mosquitoes find us? It will help us figure out how to stop them from biting us. The recent finding confirms that it is the acids in our sweat that attract them. Genetically altered mosquitoes that co…

How Nature Makes You Feel Good

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Stressed, anxious or depressed? Take a trip to a local park, hike in the mountains, stroll on the beach or explore a garden for a natural mood boost. Even sitting on a park bench to listen to the birds chirp and the leaves rustle can make you feel calmer and happier. What's happening? Science can explain.Stock Images and Video of Nature The sun provides you with vitamin D which is used in a variety of bodily functions, including regulating one’s mood. Natural light also provides you with melatonin, a chemical that helps you sleep. Being in nature can also help you disconnect. A recent study found that people who check their emails or texts constantly, actually have higher heart rates. Kids look at screens 7 hours or more a day now, leading to higher obesity rates, attention disorders and even depression. Luckily, there’s an easy remedy. Just step outside and enjoy! Even in a major city, you can take a trip to a local park or green space.Custom Framed Prints, Mugs, Shower Curtain…

The Women of Coding

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In 1833, Lady Ada Lovelace, the only legitimate daughter of Lord Byron, became the first computer programmer when she created a machine for computing called the Analytical Engine. Her partner, Charles Babbage, designed the hardware, while Lovelace focused on the machine’s inner workings or what we now call “software.” Bringing the machine to its absolute limit, Lovelace published the first computer algorithm in 1843. Lovelace’s legacy would continue into the 20th century, as women entered the workforce. While men were busy fighting WWII, a group of female computer scientists, including Betty Holberton, Kay McNulty, Marlyn Wescoff, Ruth Lichterman, Fran Bilas and Betty Jean Jennings programmed the ENIAC, one of the first general purpose computers. Although they were called “subprofessionals” by their peers and “refrigerator girls” by historians, Hoberton and her team used ENIAC to make crucial calculations on the trajectory of ballistic missiles for the US and its allies. View More Wo…