Ecstasy pills with designs on them which assure users of
their quality. Ecstasy (3, 4- methylene dioxymethamphetamine) is an
illegal drug which gives users a sense of well-being, affection for the
people around them, increased energy and sometimes hallucinations.
Possible short-term problems associated with ecstasy include feeling
ill, a sense of losing control and dehydration. Long-term problems
include memory and weight loss. There have been deaths associated with
the use of ecstasy. These are generally caused by an accumulation of
water in the brain because the drug affects the body's internal signals
rather than being due to the drug's direct toxicity.
Mycoplasma genitalium, colored transmission electron micrograph
(TEM). M. genitalium has the smallest genome (total genetic material) of
all living organisms. Its genome was mapped in 1993, making it the
second complete bacterial genome to be sequenced. In January 2008, a
team at the J. Craig Venter Institute, USA, used this map to make a
synthetic bacterial chromosome, called M. laboratorium, from scratch. A
chromosome is made up of proteins and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA
contains sections (genes) that encode the cell's structure and function.
The new chromosome, containing only the genes needed for life, was then
inserted into a M. genitalium bacterium with its genome removed. Having
a different chromosome changes the bacterium's function, making it
different from wild M. genitalium bacteria. Magnification: x43,000 when
printed 10cm wide.
Anthrax bacteria in lung. Colored scanning electron micrograph
(SEM) of a cluster of anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis) in capillary
of the lung. These rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria are pathogenic.
Commonly an infection of livestock, B. anthracis is transmitted to
humans by contact with contaminated animal hair, hides, or excrement.
Two forms of the disease occur: pnumonia in the lungs (woolsorter's
disease), and cutaneous anthrax, which causes a large boil at the site
of the bacteria's entry. Antibiotic treatment, if prompt, may be
effective for the skin infection. Pulmonary anthrax is fatal in most
cases. Magnification: x540 at 6 x 7 size. x1750 at 7.5 x 9.5
Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaurs nuzzling, computer artwork. T. rex was
one of the largest carnivorous dinosaurs, measuring 5 meters tall and
weighing 7 tonnes. It lived in North America and Asia during the late
Cretaceous period, between 85 and 65 million years ago. A predator and
scavenger, T. rex had the strongest bite of any dinosaur, with teeth
that could penetrate bone.
Enteroviruses. Colored transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a
cluster of unidentified enteroviruses. The protein coat of each virus
is light blue; RNA genetic material is red. Around the viruses are
specific antibody molecules. Enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviruses,
a group of small (25-30 nanometers in diameter) RNA viruses with cubic
symmetry. They primarily inhabit the intestine, though they are also
commonly found in the upper respiratory tract of humans. Enteroviruses
can be divided into three groups: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses and
Molecular model of Metformin, an oral antidiabetic drug and the
first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this
image, carbon molecules are black, hydrogen molecules are white, and
nitrogen molecules are blue.
Confirming an earlier tentative announcement last December,
scientists at CERN have announced the discovery of a new subatomic
particle of 125-126 GeV, which is probably the much-sought-after
Higgs boson, sometimes called the "God Particle," a massive
elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of
particle physics and named for Professor Peter Higgs, whose "Higgs
mechanism" explains the origin of mass in elementary particles.
Higgs mechanism. Number 3 in a series of 5 cartoons explaining how
the Higgs field confers mass on particles. Physicists in a room
represent space filled with only the Higgs field. When a famous
scientist enters the room he attracts a cluster of admirers (yellow).
The cluster around him increases his resistance to movement, in other
words he has acquired mass. This is the same as a particle moving
through the Higgs field and creating a local distortion, which confers
mass on the particle. If a rumor enters the room, it causes clusters in
the scientists. These clusters also have mass, as it was the cluster of
physicists that gave the famous scientist mass. A Higgs boson particle
is this cluster, or local distortion, in the Higgs field.
Simulated detection of Higgs boson. Computer simulation of an
event in which the decay of a Higgs boson particle produces four muons.
Two of these muons are seen here (green tracks). The muons, along with
countless other particles (red and blue tracks), are produced in a
head-on collision between two protons. The Higgs boson is a localized
clustering in the Higgs Field. This field permeates space, and local
distortions of the Higgs Field are thought to be the way that particles
gain mass. This image shows how the Higgs boson might be seen in the CMS
detector on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European particle