Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Mars

Mars, Viking Orbiter Mosaic JB1960
The center of Mars is at latitude 30 degrees north, longitude 270 degrees. NASA's Viking Mission to Mars was composed of two spacecraft, Viking 1 and Viking 2, each consisting of an orbiter and a lander. The primary mission objectives were to obtain high resolution images of the Martian surface, characterize the structure and composition of the atmosphere and surface, and search for evidence of life. The results from the Viking experiments give our most complete view of Mars to date. Volcanoes, lava plains, immense canyons, cratered areas, wind-formed features, and evidence of surface water are apparent in the Orbiter images. The planet appears to be divisible into two main regions, northern low plains and southern cratered highlands. Superimposed on these regions are the Tharsis and Elysium bulges, which are high-standing volcanic areas, and Valles Marineris, a system of giant canyons near the equator. The surface material at both landing sites can best be characterized as iron-rich clay. Measured temperatures at the landing sites ranged from 150 to 250 K, with a variation over a given day of 35 to 50 K. Seasonal dust storms, pressure changes, and transport of atmospheric gases between the polar caps were observed. The biology experiment produced no evidence of life at either landing site. June 1998.

View more images of Mars at ScienceSource.com

NASA Curiosity Rover Detects Methane on Mars

Curiosity rover, artwork - SS5365
Since landing on the red planet in 2012, the Mars Curiosity Rover has been has been analyzing the planet's atmosphere and measuring its chemical components.  Curiosity has recently detected concentrated spikes of methane, a gas normally released by microbial organisms here on Earth, which may indicate the presence of life on Mars.  Scientists have yet to identify the source of the methane gas, which may be trapped in ice on the planet's surface or released from underground fissures due to mechanical or thermal stress.  Most of the Martian atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide, with methane measuring about 0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv).  By comparison, Earth's atmosphere contains about 1,800 (ppbv) of methane.

Thursday, December 11, 2014

New Drug Combines Hormones to Treat Obesity and Diabetes

Research on obesity - BC4625
Researchers from the Hemholtz Diabetes Center in Munich, Germany were able to successfully test a drug on rodents which reversed the effects of obesity and diabetes over the course of three weeks.  At the end of the study, the fat mass of the rodents dropped by a third and their blood glucose fell by half.  The drug is a combination of the hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and glucagon, which are responsible for regulating blood sugar and appetite.  The newly created hybird-hormone would be able to stimulate chemical signals to trigger the body's metabolism to lower blood glucose, burn fat, and lose weight. 

Bariatric surgery is typically reserved for patients suffering from life threatening obesity, and sometimes involves removing part of the stomach or small intestine to limit food intake.  Recent studies have shown that these procedures can alter the way hormones are released from the gut in order to stimulate weight loss.  This latest finding may be the first step in creating a drug with the benefits of weight loss surgery, without the risks associated with the operation.

Friday, December 5, 2014

NASA Launches Orion Deep Space Capsule

Orion crew exploration vehicle, artwork - SM9377
NASA is testing an unmanned version of a newly developed crew capsule to be used in conjunction with a more powerful rocket that will debut in the next few years.  The technology currently in development would be designed to send astronauts past the International Space Station to other planetary bodies such as the Moon and Mars.  The Orion capsule launch is the first step in testing the vehicle's heat shielding and re-entry parachutes, as it withstands temperatures of around 3,600°F while traveling almost 20,000mph.

View more images of the "Orion Deep Space Capsule"

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

HIV Evolving into Less Virulent Form


HIV Human Cells - FC0359
Researchers from Oxford University conducted a recent study of HIV infected patients from Botswana and South Africa which indicated that the virus may be evolving as it adapts to our body's immune system and antiretroviral therapies.  As the virus continues to try and evade the immune system, it reduces its own ability to replicate and spread throughout the body.  As a result, it may take much longer for HIV infected individuals to develop AIDS as weaker mutated versions of the virus circulate in the body.  However, researchers reiterate that HIV is far from becoming harmless but are cautiously optimistic that antiretroviral therapy against weaker evolutions of the virus can eventually lead to better control of the epidemic.

It's estimated that over 35 million people are infected with HIV, which attacks the immune system and leaves the body more susceptible to common infections, eventually progressing into AIDS.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

U.S. Senate Fails to Pass Keystone XL Pipeline Bill

http://images.sciencesource.com/preview/15032262/BX8531.html
Keystone XL Pipeline - BX8531
The Senate fell short of the 60 votes needed to pass a bill approving construction of the Keystone XL oil pipeline.  The proposed pipeline would transport an estimated 830,000 barrels of tar sands oil each day from Alberta, Canada, to refineries in Nebraska. Supporters of the bill say the project would create 42,000 jobs over the two-year construction period and reduce the cost of domestic oil.  The EPA and environmentalists have warned about the risks of chemicals seeping into the soil and ground water in fragile ecosystems and local communities, and that the pipeline would ultimately nullify attempts to curb carbon emissions.

View more images for the "KEYSTONE PIPELINE"

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Monarch Butterflies

Monarch Butterfly BJ6430
Millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate south to over-winter deep inside the Michoacan forests of Mexico. When the forest warms during the late morning, the butterflies take wing and move down the mountain, where they congregate in the meadows, landing to drink from the dew-covered plants.

Explore other stock images of monarch butterflies at ScienceSource.com
Overwintering Monarch Butterflies 7N7835

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Robotic Probe Makes Historic Landing on Comet

Philae lander - SP9507
After a 10-year journey across four billion miles, the Rosetta satellite launched by the European Space Agency was able to carry the Philae robotic probe to its ultimate destination: Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.  It took about seven hours after being dropped from the Rosetta satellite for the probe to reach the comet surface.  However after its first landing, Philae bounced hundreds of meters and remained in flight for nearly two hours as the comet rotated beneath it.  The probe successfully landed by its third attempt, albeit far off from the intended landing zone.

Challenges may arise for ensuring the probe is securely fastened to the comet surface and receives enough sunlight for its solar panels.  Nevertheless, scientists are ecstatic over the data and photographs already collected from the expedition to the four billion year old comet.  The information gathered would hopefully shed more light onto the formation of our solar system and possibly the origins of life on our planet.

View our collection of "SPACE TRAVEL" images

Thursday, November 6, 2014

Scientists Develop New Alternative to Antibiotics

Antibiotic research - SL8867
Scientists and health officials agree that it's only a matter of time before conventional antibiotics fail to combat bacterial infections like MRSA, E. coli, salmonella or tuberculosis.  After decades of overuse, many bacterial strains have since mutated and developed a resistance to antibiotics like penicillin or carbapenem, drugs often saved as a "last resort" when fighting infections.  However, researchers recently tested a new drug in the Netherlands which may offer a long lasting solution to the problem of antibiotic resistance. 

The trial involved the use of endolysins, naturally occurring enzymes found in viruses known as bacteriophages.  As bacteria mutate, their cell membranes become more resilient to prevent traditional drugs from entering the cell.  However the modified endolysins are able to bind to the cell surface of specific bacteria and tear them apart, while leaving harmless or beneficial microbes unaffected.

Learn more.

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Wednesday, October 29, 2014

Does Drinking Coffee Improve Liver Function?

Healthy liver, artwork - RC7464
A recent study, published by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, showed that people who drank three cups of coffee a day had lower liver enzyme levels circulating in the blood compared to those who didn't drink coffee.  Similar effects were seen in those who only drank decaffeinated coffee as well.  The study took into account dietary factors, age, sex, race, smoking and alcohol consumption among the 27,793 participants.  The reason for these effects are still unknown, but may involve one or more of the thousands of natural compounds found in coffee.

The liver is a vital organ responsible for detoxifying the blood and plays a large role in digestion and metabolism.  Liver enzymes are used as markers during blood tests to tract healthy liver function, and can often signal the presence of certain diseases like hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease if enzyme levels become too high.

Learn more.

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